Wednesday, 29 May 2013


Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile. This means they aren't able to conceive a child even though they've had frequent, unprotected sexual intercourse for a year or longer. In about half of these couples, male infertility plays a role.

Male infertility is due to low sperm production, misshapen or immobile sperm, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices and other factors can play a role in causing male infertility.

Not being able to conceive a child can be stressful and frustrating, but a number of male infertility treatments are available.

The production of sperm is a complex process and requires normal functioning of the testicles (testes) as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary glands — organs in your brain that produce hormones that trigger sperm production. Once sperm are produced in the testicles, delicate tubes transport them until they mix with semen and are ejaculated out of the penis. Problems with any of these systems can affect sperm production. Also, there are problems of abnormal sperm shape (morphology) or movement ….(motility). Often the cause of low sperm count isn't ever identified.

Being overweight ,Having certain past or present infections, Being exposed to toxins ,Overheating the testicles, Having a prior vasectomy or vasectomy reversal ,Being born with a fertility disorder or having a blood relative with a fertility disorder ,Having certain medical conditions, including tumors and chronic illnesses Undergoing cancer treatments, such as surgery or radiation ,Taking certain medications, Performing prolonged activities such as bicycling or horseback riding, especially on a hard seat or poorly adjusted bicycle can cause oligospermia., Antibodies that attack sperm. Undescended testicles. Hormone imbalances., Sperm duct defects, Chromosome defects. Celiac disease, Environmental causes, Industrial chemicals, Heavy metal exposure can cause Low sperm count
strategies suggested or proposed for avoiding male infertility include the following:
  • Avoiding smoking as it damages sperm DNA
  • Avoiding heavy marijuana and alcohol use.
  • Avoiding excessive heat to the testes.
When participating in contact sports, wear an Protective Cup and Jockstrap to protect the testicles. Sports such as Baseball, Football, Cricket, Lacrosse, Hockey, Softball, Paintball, Rodeo, Motorcross, Wrestling, Soccer, Karate or other Martial Arts or any sport where a ball, foot, arm, knee or bat can come into contact with the groin.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a procedure for treating infertility. The procedure for intrauterine insemination is straightforward; it takes about 15 to 20 minutes and is usually done in a doctor's office or clinic. Sperm that have been "washed" and concentrated are placed directly in your uterus on the day after your ovary releases one or more eggs to be fertilized. The hoped-for outcome of intrauterine insemination is for the sperm to swim into the fallopian tubes and fertilize a waiting egg, resulting in a normal pregnancy.

Depending on the reasons for infertility, intrauterine insemination can be coordinated with your normal cycle or done in conjunction with fertility medications., for Mild male factor infertility (subfertility)., Cervical factor infertility ,Semen allergy ,Unexplained infertility.
IUI can be done for 6 cycles, if a couple fail to conceive in 6 cycles, Patient should undergo ICSI to overcome their problems.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

Before a man's sperm can fertilize a woman's egg, the head of the sperm has to attach to the outside of the egg. Then it pushes through the outer layer of the egg to the inside of the egg (cytoplasm). Sometimes the sperm cannot penetrate the outer layer. A procedure called intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can help fertilize the egg by injecting the sperm directly into the egg.
In traditional IVF(In Vitro Fertilization), the sperm are mixed with the woman's egg in a laboratory. If ICSI is needed, a small needle is used to inject a sperm into the center of the egg. The fertilized egg grows in a laboratory for one to five days, and then it is placed in the woman's uterus (womb).
ICSI helps to overcome a man's fertility problems, for instance:
  • He may produce too few sperm
  • His sperm may be not be shaped correctly or move in a normal fashion
  • The sperm may have trouble attaching to the egg
  • A blockage in his reproductive tract may keep sperm from getting out
ICSI can also be used when the use of traditional IVF has not produced fertilization, regardless of the condition of the sperm.
Once fertilization takes place, a couple's chance of giving birth to a single baby, twins, or triplets is the same if they have IVF with or without ICSI.
Having a low sperm count decreases the odds that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner's egg, resulting in pregnancy. Nonetheless, many men who have a low sperm count are still able to father a child.

Azoospermia :

The most severe expression of male factor infertility is azoospermia, where no sperm are present in the ejaculate. Azoospermia is found in 15-20% of men evaluated for infertility. Causes of azoospermia include congenital and acquired reproductive tract obstruction as well as spermatogenic failure.

The approach to azoospermic patient has changed significantly with the introduction of sperm retrieval techniques and assisted reproduction, especially IFV/ ICSI. Nevertheless, specific treatment of azoospermia remains not only successful but also a cost-effective option.

You can find a solution for all types of male, female infertility at Guru Hoapital Infertility, Madurai, a unit of Guru Hospital where a very good success rate is maintained for IVF patients. Patients who need hysteroscopic surgeries, Laparoscopic surgeries also undergo needed surgery before IVF in ANISH FERTILITY & WOMEN CENTRE. You can find a solution for your infertility under one roof.

DR.B. Kalpana MD (OG)., FNB (Reproductive medicine)
Anish Fertility & Women centre,
Guru Hospital, Madurai.